Aug 28, 2018

Samajik vigyan nu mega materials in just one click here


Samajik vigyan nu mega materials in just  one click here

The Sind sparrow was first formally described by Edward Blyth, from a specimen collected by Alexander Burnes at Bahawalpur in around 1840.[10][11] Blyth's description was published in an issue of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal which, although dated 1844, was published only in 1845.[12] It was not recorded until 36 years later, despite the efforts of noted ornithologists Allan Octavian Hume in Sindh and William Thomas Blanfordin eastern Iran.[2][13] This was probably because of its general similarity to the house sparrow,[2] though additionally, Blyth's description of the species incorrectly described its rump feathers as maroon, and a description by Thomas C. Jerdon contained similar errors.[14] Commenting on his unsuccessful search, Hume wrote that the hundreds of house sparrows he killed in pursuit of the Sind sparrow "ought to form a heavy load" on Blyth's conscience, and that if the Sind sparrow existed "it would be only decent for it ... to put on an appearance with as little delay as possible".[15] Hume doubted its distinction, as did other ornithologists.[14]The Sind sparrow was rediscovered by Scrope Berdmore Doig in 1880, in the Eastern Nara district.[16][17][18] Ernst Hartert considered it a subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus pyrrhonotus, in his Die Vögel der paläarktishen Fauna,[19] but Doig and Claud Ticehurst both found that the two species bred in the same areas without interbreeding.[2][20]
The specific epithet of the Sind sparrow, pyrrhonotus, comes from the Greek purrhos("flame-coloured"), and -nōtos ("-backed").[21]E. C. Stuart Baker suggested the English name rufous-backed sparrow, but as this name might cause confusion with other species, Ticehurst suggested the name Sind jungle-sparrow, which became the accepted name for the species. This name refers to Sindh, a province now in Pakistan which makes up a large part of the Sind sparrow's range, and the jungle habitat of the bird (in the word's original sense of tangled dry thicket).[2][20] This name is shortened to jungle sparrow or Sind sparrow, of which the first was used in the IOC World Bird List, until Sind sparrow was adopted in 2009.[22]
The Sind sparrow is a member of the genus Passer, which contains the house sparrow and around twenty other species.[23] In a 1936 review of the house sparrow's relatives, German ornithologist Wilhelm Meisesuggested that the Sind sparrow evolved from an isolated population of house sparrows, noting that the Indus valley is a centre of small bird types.[24] British ornithologist J. Denis Summers-Smith considered the Sind sparrow to be part of the "Palaearctic black-bibbed sparrow" group including the house sparrow, though not one with a particularly close relationship with the house sparrow. Summer-Smith suggested that these species separated 25,000 to 15,000 years ago,

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